What do the numbers “n”, “c”, “m” and “M” mean in microbiological criteria?
In the three-class sampling plan, food samples are divided into three classes: “0” to “m”, “m” to “M” in terms of microbiological quality, and “M”to contain a high number of microorganisms. Where "n “indicates the number of samples analyzed,” c “indicates the number of samples allowed between” m “and” M". In none of the samples analyzed, the number of microorganisms should not be above the “M” value.
What are indicator microorganisms and why should they be looked at in food samples?
The word meaning of indicator is” indicator», «indicator". The main purpose of using indicators in microbiological analysis is to determine whether food is produced in accordance with hygiene and sanitation rules.
How Can I Get My Samples To The Environmental Lab?
FESC laboratory provides free sample collection within the city limits of Istanbul. All that needs to be done is to contact our qualified sales engineers by calling 0 212 321 09 00. Outside the provincial borders of Istanbul, we direct our cargo company to you, which serves all over Turkey, and ensure that the sample is delivered to our laboratory under appropriate conditions.
What tests should I take to understand the suitability of water for drinking and/or using?
The characteristics of the waters to be suitable for drinking and use are given in the regulation on the waters for human consumption (RG 25730 – 17.02.2005). The analysis that needs to be done depends primarily on the source of the water and its intended use. For example, if water from a well is intended to be used for purposes such as cleaning, it is generally considered sufficient to determine the suitability of the criteria by analyzing approximately 8 to 10 parameters that are evaluated as indicator parameters. However, if drinking water is considered, it is useful to examine all the parameters given in the regulation, primarily microbiological properties. Our laboratory is able to do almost all of these analyses and provides technical support to its customers about what to do.
I want to have microbiological analysis in my drinking water, how should I take and deliver the sample?
If microbiological analysis is to be performed in drinking water, the most important point is sterilization. If the sample is to be taken from the tap water, the tap is opened and closed after a few minutes of water is drained and the mouth of the tap is wiped with alcohol, the lighter flame is made sterile by drifting. The tap is then re-opened and quickly filled into the sterile jar and the lid is tightly closed. The lid of the sterile jar should be opened while sampling not opened before. When the lid is opened, its interior should not be touched and its interior should be kept facing down, not turned upside down. The presence of a flame near the tap during sampling will also be beneficial for the Prevention of contamination. The sample jar should be fully filled, leaving as much air space as possible. After the sample is taken, it should be stored in the cold and delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible (within 1 day at the latest). You can obtain sterile jars, heat-insulated sample bags and ice batteries from our laboratory, and you can get help with the collection and transportation of the sample from us.
I want to have chemical analysis in drinking water / wastewater, how should I take and deliver the related sample?
Sample quantity is very important in order to study all parameters and to obtain accurate results. Therefore, you should first discuss with our officials and decide which tests should be performed and accordingly learn the amount of samples to be determined by our officials. Some parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc.) must be measured in place. You can get help from our authorities. Dark glass bottles should be preferred as sample containers. Sample containers should be clean and shaken at least 2 times with the sample to be taken. When taking samples, ventilation should be avoided and bottles should be filled full so that there is no air space, the mouth should be closed tightly. For some parameters (such as oil and grease) separate containers should be sampled. Date, time, sampling point information should be written on a label to be pasted on the sample and additional information should be noted when necessary. The sample should be protected from light and stored in the Cold (+4°C) and should be careful not to shake. Chemical protection methods should be applied when necessary (such as PH adjustment, protective addition). If protection methods are being applied, separate examples should be taken for each parameter. Samples should be brought to the laboratory as soon as possible and their analysis should be started, the storage times specified in the literature should not be exceeded.
What limits should be observed in wastewater treatment plant discharge?
Wastewater discharge limits are determined depending on the point of discharge and the wastewater source. The legislation to be taken as a basis in this regard is the Water Pollution Control Regulation of the Environmental Law. For example, for an industrial plant that discharges into the receiving environment in a region where the sewage system does not exist, the discharge limits given in the table most appropriate to the plant in the industrial categorization (Tables 5 to 18) made in the regulation depending on the production must be complied with. If there is a wastewater infrastructure facility (sewerage) in the region, table 25 or the discharge criteria of the Sewerage published by the relevant municipality are valid. If the wastewater is of domestic quality, the discharge limits determined by the population under the main heading Table 21 should be complied with.
What standards is hygiene audits performed?
Hygiene audits are conducted according to the prerequisite programs. Pre-requisite programs are GMP - Good Manufacturing Practice, GHP - good hygiene Practice, GVP - good Veterinary Practice, GAP (good Agricultural practice) etc. Depending on the product produced. it can cover programs. In addition, the Turkish food Codex and the European Union legislation have laws or regulations related to hygiene and the minimum criteria that workplaces must carry are specified.
Hygiene audits in the Environmental Laboratory are carried out with question lists prepared in accordance with the role of the business in the food chain, taking into consideration national and international standards, and are reported according to the needs of its customers.
How is the effectiveness of cleaning in businesses measured?
The effectiveness of cleaning programs applied in food establishments is determined by microbiological analysis in samples taken from the surface. How sampling should be done in this regard is specified in ISO 18593. Since there are no standards for what parameters should be looked at and what the criteria might be, support should be sought from experts.
Why should I have microbiological analysis of my product?
Because of the rich organic matter content of food items, pathogenic bacteria are conducive to the production of pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic bacteria cause some diseases in the human body. The attached table contains pathogenic bacteria and the ailments they cause in the body.